**BUTLER
R-5 SCHOOL DISTRICT**

**CONSUMER
MATH CURRICULUM**

**MATH**

**Approved by the Board of Education, November 1999**

**DESCRIPTION:**

Consumer
Math is a mathematics course designed not only to develop the basic fundamental
skills needed to function in everyday consumer situations but also to develop
an understanding of these concepts as well. Topics to be covered will include,
but not restricted to, the following: bank accounts, loans, wages, salary,
budgeting, taxes, insurance, and home ownership.

**RATIONALE:**

As adults in
today's world individuals will need to apply basic mathematic skills in solving
real-life situations that arise in their personal lives and careers. This
course provides that information.

**BUTLER R-5 SCHOOL DISTRICT**

**CURRICULUM**

**CONSUMER MATH 1**

**LEVEL 9-12**

**A. Demonstrate an understanding of numbers.**

1. Rename a fraction as a decimal and a decimal as a fraction.

*Strands addressed: Communication, Connections, Number Sense, Patterns
and Relationships*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.6, 1.8)*

* *2.
Write a percent as a decimal and a decimal as a percent.

*Strands
addressed: Communication, Connections, Number Sense, Patterns and Relationship*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.6, 1.8)*

**B. Apply the basic operations in computational situations.**

** **1. Compute the sum,
difference, product, and quotient of rational numbers.

*Strands addressed: Number Sense*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.10)*

2. Demonstrate the use of a calculator.

*Strands addressed: Communication*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.4)*

* *3.
Find the percent of a given number.

* Strands
addressed: Number Sense*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.10)*

* *4.
Determine the amount of elapsed time when given two times, and estimate to check answer.

* Strands
addressed: Number Sense*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.10)*

**C. Estimate results and judge reasonableness of solutions.**

** **1. Round a number to
a given place.

*Strands addressed: Reasoning*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.6, 1.10, 3.4)*

2. Judge reasonableness of solutions in consumer and physical situations.

*Strands addressed: Reasoning*

* (Show-Me
Standards 3.4, 3.7)*

**D. Apply the concept of measurement to the physical world.**

** **1. Use unit
multipliers to convert units of measure.

*Strands addressed: Geometric and Spatial Sense*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.10)*

2. Compute the area/perimeter of regular and irregular shaped figures with main focus on regular.

*Strands addressed: Geometric and Spatial Sense*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.10)*

**E. Recognize geometric relationships.**

** **1. Be able to recognize simple geometric figures so as to apply
appropriate formulas for area and surface
area problems.

*Strands addressed: Patterns and Relationships, Geometric and Spatial
Sense*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.6, 1.10)*

**F. Use statistical techniques and interpret statistical information.**

* *1.
Read and interpret tables, graphs, and charts.

* Strands
addressed: Data Analysis, Probability and Statistics, Communication*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.5)*

* *2.
Find the mean, median, mode, and range of a given set of data.

* Strands
addressed: Data Analysis, Probability and Statistics*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.8, 1.10)*

* *3.
Recognize misuse of statistical data by advertisements, etc.

* Strands
addressed: Data Analysis, Probability and Statistics*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.5, 1.7)*

* *4.
Formulate and solve problems that involve collecting and analyzing statistical data.

* Strands
addressed: Data Analysis, Probability and Statistics*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.2, 1.8, 3.1, 3.2)*

* *

CONCEPT
ANALYSIS: Finding a range of data, constructing graphs, computing the average,
and reading data points as answers to specific questions are important skills,
but they comprise a very narrow view of data analysis. Being able to compute an
average and knowing when to compute that average and what it means are two
different skills. Students need to be actively involved in each of the
necessary steps to solve problems in statistics, not just compute a specific
number from given data. These steps include: identifying the question,
collecting and organizing the data, constructing and interpreting tables and
graphs, drawing inferences to describe trends, developing convincing arguments,
and evaluating the arguments of others. The ability to evaluate conclusions is
vitally important to all students since statistical data is so often used in
diverse areas such as advertising and forecasting, as well as in the
development of public policy.

SAMPLE
TEST ITEM:

__Component
Skills__

A.
Describe trends by drawing inferences.

B.
Evaluate conclusions from a set of data.

C.
Solve problems involving mean, median, mode, and
range.

__Specification__

Students
are given statistical information in graphic or tabular form. They are asked to
describe trends by drawing inferences. They are also asked to evaluate given
conclusions based on statistical data. Additionally, they are asked to solve
computational and non-computational problems involving mean, median, mode, or
range.

__Sample
Item:__

1.
The median price of a house in a small midwestern
city is $48,000. Which conclusion is correct?

A.
Most houses cost $48,000.

B.
The price of the most expensive house is $48,000.

C.
The best price for a house is $48,000.

*D.
There are as many houses costing less than $48,000 as there are costing more.

**G. Apply problem-solving strategies.**

* *1.
Use the calculator to solve consumer problems.

*Strands addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.4, 1.10, 3.2)*

* *2.
Solve problems involving surface area and area in consumer situations (paint, carpet, etc.)

*Strands addressed: Problem Solving, Connections, Geometric and Spatial
Sense*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.1, 3.8)*

CONCEPT
ANALYSIS: Consumer area and perimeter problems are sometimes very difficult for
students. Lack of viable experience hampers understanding, and the multiple
steps sometimes involved in obtaining an answer may cause difficulties. Adults
usually do not have as much trouble with these contexts, because they grow
accustomed to working with the real problems--the room to be painted or the
floor to be carpeted. Students need practice in defining situations, in
recognizing the various components of a problem, and in working through to a
satisfactory conclusion. Using models or actual rooms, floors, etc., can help.
Practice in diagramming given specifications will help those who have trouble
visualizing. Problems which require the students to measure various dimensions
will improve measurement skills, and this experience may make the problems easier
by giving them a real context.

TEST
SAMPLE ITEM

__Component
Skills:__

A.
Solve problems involving area in consumer situations.

B.
Solve problems involving perimeter in consumer situations.

__Specification:__

Students
are given a diagram or dimensions that involve a consumer situation and are
asked to compute the area or perimeter. For example, they may be asked to find
how much paint, wallpaper, sod, or shingles are required for a given situation.

__Sample
Item:__

1.
A wall is 40 feet long and 5 feet high. One can of paint will
cover 60 square feet. How many cans of paint will be needed to paint the entire
wall with two coats of paint?

A.
3

B.
4

C.
5

*D.
7

3. Solve problems involving use of ratio and proportion in consumer situations (better buy, scale drawing, recipe conversion, etc.)

*Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections, Number Sense*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.1, 3.8)*

* *CONCEPT ANALYSIS: Proportional thinking is a very
powerful and useful tool. Comparing numbers and identifying consistent
relationships often offer immediate solutions to seemingly complex problems.
When faced with consumer decisions involving how much items cost, which item is
cheaper, or how far one place is from another, a proportion is usually the most
direct solution. The mathematics of ratio and proportion is arithmetically
simple; it is the variety of applications that produces confusion. Most
students do not readily see the concept of proportion as it applies
simultaneously to unit pricing in a better-buy situation, or the amount of
flour needed if a cookie recipe is tripled, or computation of the distance
between Kansas City and Chicago based on map information. The applications must
be taught both individually for context and together as examples of the same
problem-solving technique: ratio and proportion.

SAMPLE
TEST ITEM

__Component
Skills:__

A.
Solve problems involving pricing.

B.
Solve problems involving food, recipes, and nutrition.

C.
Solve problems involving medication dosage.

D.
Solve problems involving relative distance between locations.

__Specification:__

Students
are given a consumer situation and are asked to solve a problem using
proportions. The problem will involve pricing, food recipes and nutrition,
medication dosage, or relative distances between locations.

__Sample
Item:__

1.
Peanut butter is on sale at the grocery store. The price is $2.55 for a
28-ounce jar. What is the unit price in cents per ounce?

*A.
9.1

B.
10.1

C.
11.1

D.
12.1

4. Collect data from real-life situations to apply to a given formula.

*Strands addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.3, 1.10)*

**H. Solve problems in consumer situations.**

1. Compute the total hours on a weekly time card.

*Strands addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.10)*

* *2.
Compute Gross Pay from straight-time, overtime tips, commission, piece work.

*Strands addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.8, 1.10, 3.1, 3.2)*

CONCEPT ANALYSIS: Receiving a paycheck is an important event for most
Americans. Being able to compute gross pay is therefore essential, as more and
more students join the work force, at least as part-time workers, before
graduation from high school. The mathematics of getting paid includes the
vocabulary of the various methods by which one may be paid as well as the
arithmetic. Local variations may exist in vocabulary, but basically employee
wages are calculated according to hourly, monthly, commission, and piecework
rates. Overtime, holiday, or Sunday pay varies from job to job. Figuring pay
often motivates students to practice application of concepts considered
otherwise boring, such as ratio, proportion, and percent.

SAMPLE
TEST ITEM

__Component
Skills:__

A.
Compute gross pay using hourly rates.

B.
Compute gross pay using monthly rates.

C.
Compute gross pay using commission rates.

D.
Compute gross pay using piecework rates.

E.
Compute gross pay using overtime rates.

__Specification:__

Students
are given an employment situation and are asked to compute the employee's gross
pay.

__Sample
Item:__

1.
Jennifer earns $4.50 per hour at her part-time job. She is paid time-and-a-half
for working holidays. During the week of Thanksgiving, she worked 20 hours plus
8 hours on Thanksgiving Day. What is her gross pay for the week?

A.
$108.00

B.
$126.00

*C.
$144.00

D.
$162.00

3. Compute the salary for a pay period.

*Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.1, 3.2)*

* *4.
Compute net pay using appropriate information for Social Security deductions, state and federal taxes, etc.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.1, 3.2)*

* *CONCEPT ANALYSIS: Our society is politically and
economically very complex. For students to function well, they must have some
understanding of the controlling principles and the interconnections between
political and economic realities. When high school students join the work
force, they must learn to calculate wages and deductions. The vocabulary, as
well as the mathematics, must be taught. For example, students need to know the
history and intent of Social Security laws and how tax deductions are computed.
They also need to know the basic premises behind federal and state income taxes
and how to read tax tables. The curriculum for college-bound students may need
to be adjusted to assure them an opportunity to learn about these political and
economic issues.

SAMPLE
TEST ITEM

__Component
Skills:__

A.
Compute net pay.

B. Compute Social Security deduction.

C.
Compute state and federal taxes.

__Specification:__

Students
are given data about a person's pay check and other variables; these may appear
in a table. They are asked to compute net pay considering one or more of the
following: Social Security deductions, state and federal taxes, and other
similar deductions.

5. Compute the total purchase price considering discounts, sale price, and taxes.

*Strands addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.10)*

* *6.
Compute the unit price and determine the better buy.

*Strands addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 4.1)*

* *7.
Solve banking problems related to maintaining a checking account.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.1, 3.2)*

* *8.
Compute simple and compound interest.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections, Discrete
Mathematics*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.2, 4.8)*

* *9.
Compute the new balance in a charge account based on the finance charge, previous balance, and unpaid balances.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.2, 4.8)*

* *10.
Compute finance charges on various types of loans.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.2, 4.8)*

* *11.
Compute sticker price, dealer's cost, and retail price of new/used cars.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.2, 4.8)*

* *12.
Use tables to determine driver rating factor and compute automobile insurance premiums.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.2, 4.8)*

* *13.
Compute cost of operating and maintaining an automobile.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.10)*

* *14.
Compute the cost of buying, maintaining a home (assessed value, taxes, homeowners insurance, escrow)

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standard 1.10)*

** **15. Read a meter and
compute cost of electricity, gas, and water.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 4.8)*

* *16.
Use records of past expenditures to prepare a monthly budget.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.1, 1.2, 1.8, 1.10, 3.1, 3.2, 3.6, 3.8, 4.1)*

* *17.
Compute and compare total housing cost with suggested guidelines.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.1, 1.2, 1.10, 3.1)*

* *18.
Prepare a state and federal income tax form.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.8, 1.10, 2.2, 4.1, 4.8)*

* *19.
Use tables to compute premiums for term and whole life insurance.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 3.1, 3.2, 4.8)*

* *20.
Compute health insurance premiums and deductions.

* Strands
addressed: Problem Solving, Connections*

* (Show-Me
Standards 1.10, 4.8)*

* *

* *

* *

* *

**RESOURCES:**

* *Consumer Mathematics textbook (Glencoe
Macmillan/McGraw-Hill 1992, orig. 1982)

Using
Checking Account

Your Pay Check

Getting a Job (Media Materials, Inc.)

Software,
Cross Country USA